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Earth Girl (Earth Girl #1) by Janet Edwards
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Photography by Michael Tan. Arif Anwar. Product Details. Related Articles. Raves and Reviews. Resources and Downloads. Thank you for signing up, fellow book lover! See More Categories. Your First Name. Elmo's Fire, whereas they are separate and distinct phenomena. Elmo's Fire is, in fact, plasma , and is observed, usually during a thunderstorm , at the tops of trees, spires or other tall objects, or on the heads of animals, as a brush or star of light. Corona is caused by the electric field around the object in question ionizing the air molecules, producing a faint glow easily visible in low-light conditions.
Approximately 1, — 30, volts per centimetre is required to induce St. Elmo's Fire; however, this is dependent on the geometry of the object in question. Sharp points tend to require lower voltage levels to produce the same result because electric fields are more concentrated in areas of high curvature, thus discharges are more intense at the end of pointed objects.
Elmo's Fire and normal sparks both can appear when high electrical voltage affects a gas.
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Elmo's fire is seen during thunderstorms when the ground below the storm is electrically charged, and there is high voltage in the air between the cloud and the ground. The voltage tears apart the air molecules and the gas begins to glow. The nitrogen and oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere causes St.
Elmo's Fire to fluoresce with blue or violet light; this is similar to the mechanism that causes neon signs to glow. The Schumann resonances are a set of spectrum peaks in the extremely low frequency ELF portion of the Earth's electromagnetic field spectrum. Schumann resonance is due to the space between the surface of the Earth and the conductive ionosphere acting as a waveguide. The limited dimensions of the earth cause this waveguide to act as a resonant cavity for electromagnetic waves. The cavity is naturally excited by energy from lightning strikes.
Atmospheric charges can cause undesirable, dangerous, and potentially lethal charge potential buildup in suspended electric wire power distribution systems. Bare wires suspended in the air spanning many kilometers and isolated from the ground can collect very large stored charges at high voltage, even when there is no thunderstorm or lightning occurring. This charge will seek to discharge itself through the path of least insulation, which can occur when a person reaches out to activate a power switch or to use an electric device.
To dissipate atmospheric charge buildup, one side of the electrical distribution system is connected to the earth at many points throughout the distribution system, as often as on every support pole. The one earth-connected wire is commonly referred to as the "protective earth", and provides path for the charge potential to dissipate without causing damage, and provides redundancy in case any one of the ground paths is poor due to corrosion or poor ground conductivity. The additional electric grounding wire that carries no power serves a secondary role, providing a high-current short-circuit path to rapidly blow fuses and render a damaged device safe, rather than have an ungrounded device with damaged insulation become "electrically live" via the grid power supply, and hazardous to touch.
Each transformer in an alternating current distribution grid segments the grounding system into a new separate circuit loop. These separate grids must also be grounded on one side to prevent charge buildup within them relative to the rest of the system, and which could cause damage from charge potentials discharging across the transformer coils to the other grounded side of the distribution network. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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Electricity in planetary atmospheres. Main article: History of electromagnetic theory. Main articles: Background radiation and Cosmic ray. Main articles: Thunderstorms and lightning. Main article: Schumann resonance. Main article: Earthing system. Earth sciences portal Geophysics portal Weather portal. Alan Atmospheric Electricity. Pergamon Press. January 1, Journal of Physics: Conference Series. March 17, Retrieved October 31, London: Imperial College Press.
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By HH Hoffert. Page Rakov, Martin A. Uman Lightning: Physics and Effects. See Anomalous Remanent Magnetization of Basalt pubs.