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However, this sliding scale method is falling out of use. Depending on which studio that is distributing the film, the studio will either have offices around the world, by themselves or partnered with another studio, to distribute films in other countries.

Understanding DVD - Appendix A - Suggested Further Reading and Resources

If a studio decides to partner with a native distributor, upon release both names will appear. The foreign distributor may license the film for a certain amount of time, but the studio will retain the copyright of the film. The international sales agent will find a local distributor in each individual international territory meaning outside of the US for a US independent film and license the exclusive rights to the film for a certain amount of time but in the same case as the studios described above, the production company will retain the copyright of the film.

This means that this distributor in a certain territory has the exclusive right to exploit the film in various media theatrical, tv, home entertainment, etc for a certain amount of time. Although there are now numerous distribution techniques, in the past the studios and networks were slow to change and did not experiment with different distribution processes. Studios believed that new distribution methods would cause their old methods of revenue to be destroyed.

With time, the development of new distribution did prove to be beneficial. The studios revenue was gained from myriad distribution windows. These windows created many opportunities in the industry and allowed networks to make a profit and eliminate failure. These new distribution methods benefited audiences that were normally too small to reach and expanded the content of television.

With the new age of technology, networks accepted the fact that it was a consumer demand industry and accepted the new models of distribution. This term, used mainly in the British film industry , describes the distribution of feature films for screening to a gathered audience, but not in theatres at which individual tickets are sold to members of the public. The defining distinctions between a theatrical and a non-theatrical screening are that the latter has to be to a closed audience in some way, e.

Most non-theatrical screening contracts also specify that the screening must not be advertised, except within the group that is eligible to attend e. Non-theatrical distribution includes the airlines and film societies.

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Non-theatrical distribution is generally handled by companies that specialise in this market, of which Motion Picture Licensing Company MPLC and Filmbankmedia are the two largest:. Motion Picture Licensing Company Filmbankmedia.

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Dvd Production : A Practical Resource For Dvd Publishers

Find out how alcohol can affect you and your health. All CD players are designed to stop you looking at the lasers by mistake. Don't ever fool around with them! It wasn't long before computer companies realized they could use CDs to distribute software programs very cheaply, and ordinary computer users soon saw that CDs would be even better if you could write music and data on them as well as just read from them.

That's how recordable CDs CD-Rs came to be developed, but the snag was that they could only be written on once; you couldn't erase and reuse them. Soon enough, though, the computer whizzkids developed rewritable CDs CD-RWs that you could erase and rewrite any number of times. In theory, if you wanted to make ordinary CDs in your own home, you'd need to install a huge and expensive CD-pressing machine.

Fortunately, you don't need to do this—and that's because recordable CDs CD-Rs work in a completely different way. This time, there are no pits and lands imprinted on plastic. Instead, in between the protective polycarbonate and the reflective aluminum, there's a layer of dye. Normally the dye is translucent: laser light zooming into the disk from a CD player will pass straight through it, hit the reflective aluminum, and bounce straight back down again. So far so good, but how do we store information on a compact disc like this?

A CD-R writer has a higher-powered laser than normal, which generates heat when it strikes the disc, "burning" the dye and making a tiny black spot. Later, when a CD reader aims its laser at that spot, the light is completely absorbed and doesn't reflect back. This indicates that a zero "0" is stored on the disc at that point. In places where the dye is unburned, the laser light reflects straight back again, indicating that a "1" is stored on the disc.

See where this is going? By creating areas of "burned" dots, and other places where the dye is left alone, a CD-R writer creates a pattern of binary zeros and ones that can be used to store information. Unfortunately, once the dye is "burned" it's permanently transformed: you can't change it back again. And that's why you can only write a CD-R disc once.

Just in passing, we should note that, although CD writers are widely referred to as CD burners , they do not actually burn things combust them with oxygen : they simply use a laser to change the light-sensitive dye.

Illustration: With a CD-R, binary information is stored as "burned" areas 0 and unburned areas 1 in the dye layer sandwiched between the protective polycarbonate and the reflective aluminum. Let's say you're charged with the task of developing a type of compact disc that can be written to or erased over and over again. Clearly you can't use either of the methods we've discussed so far the pits and lands method from read-only audio CDs or the "burned"-dye method used in CD-Rs.

What you really need is a CD made from a substance that can easily be converted back and forth between two different forms, so it can be used to store a pattern of zeros and ones, then erased and used to store a different pattern later on if necessary. Most of us learned in school that the atoms or molecules in solids, liquids, and gases arrange themselves in different positions, with atoms in solids tightly locked together.

Some solid materials are more complex than this: their atoms or molecules can be arranged in two or more different ways called solid phases. Solid carbon, for example, can exist in very different phases that include graphite and diamond. That's just what we need to make a CD-RW disc. Instead of having a layer of dye, a CD-RW has a layer of metallic alloy that can exist in two different solid forms and change back and forth between them.

It's called a phase-change or phase-shift material. When a CD-RW laser hits this material, it changes tiny little areas of it back and forth between the crystalline and amorphous forms. When it creates a crystalline area, it's making part of the CD reflective and effectively writing a one "1" ; when it makes an amorphous area, it's making the CD non-reflective and writing a zero "0". Because this process can be repeated any number of times, you can write and rewrite a CD-RW pretty much as many times as you like!

Illustration: With a CD-RW, binary information is stored as areas of metal alloy that are either crystalline or amorphous. Crystalline areas have a regular structure that lets light pass through to the aluminum area and reflect back down again, thus storing ones. Amorphous areas have a random structure that scatters incoming laser light, so it can't reflect back, thus storing zeros. A CD-rewriter can change the metal alloy on the CD from one form to the other and back again, which is why this kind of disc can be erased and rewritten many times over.

CDs were originally used just for storing music.

Each disc could store 74 minutes of stereo sound—more than enough for a typical LP record. During the s, CD technology also became popular for storing computer programs, games, and other information. Kodak's PhotoCD system a way of storing up to photos on a compact disc , was also launched in the s. Because DVDs are the same size as CDs, and are storing seven times more information, the zeros and ones or pits and lands on a DVD have to be correspondingly smaller than those on a CD.

The latest optical discs use a technology called Blu-ray to store six times more data than DVDs or 40 times more than CDs see the box at the bottom for a full explanation. Photo: CDs introduced us to digital music, but they're now being superseded by MP3 players and digital downloads. Look how hard it is to hold just a dozen CDs in your hand. Having said that, a music track on CD will always sound better than than the equivalent MP3, for reasons we explain in our article on MP3 players and digital music. It's nice and easy to explain CDs by saying that pits correspond to zeros and lands to ones, but it's not really true.

About Dance Composition

The information on a CD is encoded in a much more subtle way that uses complex and clever data encoding techniques, including eight-to-fourteen modulation EFM and non-return to zero inverted NRZI coding. That sounds extremely technical, but it's not too hard to understand. EFM essentially just means converting short patterns of data into longer ones paradoxically to store them more efficiently with less risk of error. NRZI means that instead of reading individual lands and pits, the laser is looking out for changes between a pit and a land, or long strings of pits and lands, and converting those into ones and zeros instead.

So, for example, if it reads a long pit and suddenly comes across a land, that is interpreted as a one. If it reads a land and suddenly comes across a pit, that's also interpreted as a one. On the other hand, unchanging areas of land or pit are both interpreted as zeros. Artwork: How pits and lands encode zeros and ones on a CD's surface.

The transition from pit to land, or land to pit, encodes a one; a length of uninterrupted pit or land encodes a zero. Why use these sorts of techniques instead of the simple "pit equals zero, land equals one" method I described above? It uses the disc space more efficiently so we can pack more data on a disc , avoids the need for very short or long pits or lands, and minimizes the importance of bits that get lost due to scratches or dirt so it helps correct against errors.

Unless you're building your own CD player or monkeying around with data communication, you really don't need to know precisely how your data is stored on a CD or DVD, so if you want to think of pits being zeros and lands one, that's a perfectly good approximation to what's happening—and all most of us care to know. Pohlmann, from page 74 onward.

The technology behind CDs was invented in the late s by James T. Russell —.

An avid music fan, he longed for a sound-recording system that would reproduce music more exactly than LP records and cassette tapes. He patented the first ever optical sound recording system in , refining it over the years that followed.